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Chapter Commentary

1 Now it came to pass in the days of Ahasuerus (this is Ahasuerus who reigned from India even unto Ethiopia, over a hundred and seven and twenty provinces),2 that in those days, when the king Ahasuerus sat on the throne of his kingdom, which was in Shushan the palace,3 in the third year of his reign, he made a feast unto all his princes and his servants; the power of Persia and Media, the nobles and princes of the provinces, being before him;4 when he showed the riches of his glorious kingdom and the honor of his excellent majesty many days, even a hundred and fourscore days.5 And when these days were fulfilled, the king made a feast unto all the people that were present in Shushan the palace, both great and small, seven days, in the court of the garden of the kings palace.6 There were hangings of white cloth, of green, and of blue, fastened with cords of fine linen and purple to silver rings and pillars of marble: the couches were of gold and silver, upon a pavement of red, and white, and yellow, and black marble.7 And they gave them drink in vessels of gold (the vessels being diverse one from another), and royal wine in abundance, according to the bounty of the king.8 And the drinking was according to the law; none could compel: for so the king had appointed to all the officers of his house, that they should do according to every mans pleasure.9 Also Vashti the queen made a feast for the women in the royal house which belonged to king Ahasuerus.10 On the seventh day, when the heart of the king was merry with wine, he commanded Mehuman, Biztha, Harbona, Bigtha, and Abagtha, Zethar, and Carcas, the seven chamberlains that ministered in the presence of Ahasuerus the king,11 to bring Vashti the queen before the king with the crown royal, to show the peoples and the princes her beauty; for she was fair to look on.12 But the queen Vashti refused to come at the kings commandment by the chamberlains: therefore was the king very wroth, and his anger burned in him.13 Then the king said to the wise men, who knew the times, (for so was the kings manner toward all that knew law and judgment;14 and the next unto him were Carshena, Shethar, Admatha, Tarshish, Meres, Marsena, and Memucan, the seven princes of Persia and Media, who saw the kings face, and sat first in the kingdom),15 What shall we do unto the queen Vashti according to law, because she hath not done the bidding of the king Ahasuerus by the chamberlains?16 And Memucan answered before the king and the princes, Vashti the queen hath not done wrong to the king only, but also to all the princes, and to all the peoples that are in all the provinces of the king Ahasuerus.17 For this deed of the queen will come abroad unto all women, to make their husbands contemptible in their eyes, when it shall be reported, The king Ahasuerus commanded Vashti the queen to be brought in before him, but she came not.18 And this day will the princesses of Persia and Media who have heard of the deed of the queen say the like unto all the kings princes. So will there arise much contempt and wrath.19 If it please the king, let there go forth a royal commandment from him, and let it be written among the laws of the Persians and the Medes, that it be not altered, that Vashti come no more before king Ahasuerus; and let the king give her royal estate unto another that is better than she.20 And when the kings decree which he shall make shall be published throughout all his kingdom (for it is great), all the wives will give to their husbands honor, both to great and small.21 And the saying pleased the king and the princes; and the king did according to the word of Memucan:22 for he sent letters into all the kings provinces, into every province according to the writing thereof, and to every people after their language, that every man should bear rule in his own house, and should speak according to the language of his people.
Chapter Introduction
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Brief Quotations
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History of Interpretation
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Verse by Verse Exegesis























Comparison / Typology
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Introduction to Esther

Book Introduction Coming Soon.

Commentary List

  • Allen, Leslie C. Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther. New International Biblical Commentary. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers, 2003.
  • Bede, The Venerable. On Ezra and Nehemiah. Liverpool, UK: Liverpool University Press, 2006.
  • Berlin, Adele. The JPS Torah Commentary Series; Esther. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 2001.
  • Bickerman, Elias. Four Strange Books of the Bible: Jonah, Daniel, Koheleth, Esther. New York: Schocken, 1967.
  • Brown, Raymond. The Message of Nehemiah: God's Servant in a Time of Change. The Bible Speaks Today. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1998.
  • Clarke, Adam. The Holy Bible, Containing the Old and New Testaments . . . With a Commentary and Critical Notes. 7 vols. New York: Ezra Sargent, 1811. [Google Books]
  • Conti, Marco, ed.; with Gianluca Pilara. Ancient Christian Commentary on Scripture; 1-2 Kings, 1-2 Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2008.
  • Jamieson, Robert; A. R. Faucet; and David Brown. A Commentary, Critical and Explanatory, on the Old and New Testaments. 2 vols. [Vol. 1: Old Testament]. New York Jamieson: S. S. Scranton, 1875. [Google Books]
  • Jenks, William; ed. The Comprehensive Commentary on the Holy Bible . . . Containing Scott's Marginal References; Matthew Henry's Commentary. 5 vols. Brattleboro, VT: Fessenden, 1835, 1836, 1839; Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1849. [Vol. 2: Ruth to Psalms] [Google Books]
  • Jobes Karen H. Esther. NIV Application Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 1999.
  • Kidner, Derek. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries, Volume 12; Ezra and Nehemiah. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 2009 [1979].
  • Levering, Matthew. Ezra and Nehemiah. Brazos Theological Commentary on the Bible. Grand Rapids, MI: Brazos Press, 2007.
  • Maclaren, Alexander. Expositions of Holy Scripture; The Second Book of Kings from Chap. VIII, and the Books of Chronicles, Ezra, and Nehemiah. New York: A. C. Armstrong, 1908. [Google Books]
  • Maclaren, Alexander. Expositions of Holy Scripture; The Books of Esther, Job, Proverbs, and Ecclesiastes. New York: A. C. Armstrong, 1908. [Google Books]
  • McGee, J. Vernon. Thru the Bible. 5 vols. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 1981. [Vol. 2: Joshua to Psalms]
  • Neusner, Jacob. Esther Rabbah: An Analytical Translation. Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press, 1989.
  • Patrick, Simon. A Commentary Upon the Historical Books of the Old Testament; Vol. II. [Joshua to Esther] 5th edition. London: Printed for D. Midwinter, 1738. [Public Domain]
  • Poole, Matthew. Annotations Upon the Holy Bible. 3 vols. New York: Robert Carter, 1853. [Vol. 1: Genesis to Job] [Google Books]
  • Rashi, and Avraham Schwartz. The Megilloth and Rashi's Commentary With Linear Translation: Esther, Song of Songs, Ruth. New York: Hebrew Linear Classics / Feldheim, 1983.
  • Rawlinson, George. The Pulpit Commentary; Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, Job. Series edited by H. D. M. Spence-Jones. New York / Toronto: Funk and Wagnalls, 1890s. [Public Domain]
  • Reid, Debra. Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries, Volume 13; Esther. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity, 2008 [1988].
  • Trapp, John. A Commentary or Exposition upon the Books of Ezra, Nehemiah, Esther, Job, and Psalms. London: Printed by T. R. and E. M. for Thomas Newberry and Joseph Barber, 1657. [Public Domain]

Chapter Credits

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